Cystic Fibrosis, Overview, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Complications, Prevention, and Management

Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic condition and an inherited disease that affects the lungs and many other body organs. In this disease, the body produces thick and sticky mucus that can block the lungs, making it very difficult for the person to breathe. Usually, the mucus that the body produces is thin and slippery, while if the person has this disease, it becomes thick, sticky, and glue-like. The thick mucus blocks the tubes and builds up inside the airways. It causes obstinate lung infection and limits the ability to breathe. The mucus promotes the infection by trapping germs. It prevents the enzyme from breaking the food properly and interferes with pancreatic functioning. The thick mucus can also damage the lungs and can be life-threatening. This disease can also cause other complications like liver disease and diabetes. Cystic fibrosis affects 30000 people in the US, with 1000 new cases every year. The most common cause of death in patients is respiratory failure.

1Causes of cystic fibrosis

Causes of cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that is transferred to the offspring if both parents either have the disease or are carriers of the faulty gene responsible for causing cystic fibrosis. This condition can only be caused by a genetic mutation and is not contagious. If a person is not born with this defective gene, he can never have it. However, the person can be a CP carrier if one of the parents has a faulty gene. The defective gene is responsible for producing a protein responsible for controlling water and salt flow outside the organs, including the lungs. In CF, the salt balance is disturbed, resulting in too little salt and water outside the cells, causing thicker mucus production than usual.

The people having one of the defective genes are the carrier. If the child has faulty genes from both parents, he has a 25% chance of having CF, a 50% chance of being the carrier, and a 25% chance of not being the carrier.