Obesity: Definition, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment & More


Obesity is traditionally defined as a rise in body weight that was higher than 20 percent of a person’s ideal body weight. The weight links with the reduced risks of death were found by some factors such as height, gender, and age. Based on factors, overweight might be defined as 15-20 percent higher than ideal body weight. Therefore, current definitions of obesity and overweight are based on the particular measure of weight and height, not morbidity.  Such measures use to calculate a known number as Body Mass Index (BMI).

Body mass index (BMI) determines the body size of a person by using his/her height and weight. In adults, obesity is explained as having a BMI of 30.0 or more reliable source, similar to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Obesity is related to a higher risk for dangerous diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Obesity is the most occurring disease. The CDC evaluates that 42.2 percent of Americans 20 years old and elders had obesity in 2017 to 2018. However, BMI is not all in all. It has few restrictions as a metric. Factors like muscle mass, sex, age, and ethnicity will change the relationship between BMI and body fat.

In addition, BMI doesn’t differentiate among excessive muscle, bone mass, or fat, and also it does not give any demonstration of the division of fat between human beings. Although, with such restrictions, BMI is constantly used in the whole world as a scale to calculate the size of the body. Bodyweight is determined by the cooperation of different factors. There is strong proof of genetic predisposition of accumulation of fat and obesity is more likely run in families. Therefore, the rising population having obesity population across the world since the 1980s in which genetic mutations are typically incorporated into the population on a bigger scale.

Additionally, the growing numbers of individuals in various parts of the world where obesity was rare also gain huge weight. According to World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is a global epidemic, while in 2016 more than 1.9 billion people (ages from 18 or above) across the world were overweight and 650 million, showing 13 percent of the adult population globally were obese. The occurrence of obesity and overweight varies all over the town, countries, and cities within the countries and the whole population of women and men. (1)

In Japan and China, for example, the rate of obesity in men and women was nearly 5% but in a few cities of China, it raises almost 20 percent. While 2005 shows that 70 percent above of Mexican women were overweight. WHO surveys and collect data that releases in 2010 show that more than half of the population living in the countries of the Pacific Islands region were obese, with a few 80 percent of women being found obese in American Samoa. Therefore, obesity is rising day by day. Morbidity obesity is also known as severe or extreme obesity and defined as having a BMI of 40 or above that.



In most people, obesity is the most prolonging disease. Obesity leads to multiple factors and even though the fundamental increase in exercise and decrease intake of calories is a simple concept relatively, various undergoing factors might cause obesity in a person. Therefore, treatment needs to take all of such thoughts.  The requirement to manage obesity is obvious as obesity raises the risk of health problems and multiple other diseases, such as:

  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Gout
  • Lung disease
  • Stroke
  • Depression
  • Colon cancer
  • Osteoarthritis (significantly low back pain and hip and knee joint pain)
  • Gallstones
  • Dementia
  • Insomnia from snoring (snoring)
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Fungal rashes occur in the skin folds

Depression might be one of the most common effects that occur in obesity. Many people who are obese suffer from emotional stress. Because of the insistence on the physical appearance in almost every culture that equal to slimness with beauty, while obese people might have the feeling of unattractiveness. They might also be subject to ridicule, prejudice, and discrimination that might make them feel embarrassed or rejected. Obesity is the major risk factor for the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. The amazing news is that it can be preventable.

Therefore, in clinical studies, patients who are at increased risk of having diabetes lower the risk by almost 60% with having less than 10% weight loss in the last three years. The main signs and symptoms also obtain from the extent of the excessive weight, the most occurring, consisting:

  • Body mass index (BMI) higher than 30 kg/m2
  • The waist circumference is higher than 102 cm in men and women, it is 88 cm
  • Stretch marks (because of rupture and distension of the elastic fibers over the skin), vinous in the instance of obesity because of Cushing (endocrinological alteration)
  • High blood pressure level greater than ≥140/90 mm Hg
  • Acanthosis nigricans ( it is a skin disorder, categorized by the occurrence of hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratosis in the armpits and skin folds)
  • Varicose veins and swelling in the lower limb.
  • The obesity symptoms go after excessive body fat. Shortness of breath, skin problems, trouble while sleeping and more can have effects of obesity on someone else. Some symptoms are even well-known to raise a person’s risk of having certain disorders and diseases. In most cases, these might be even fatal and life-threatening. Here’s is a complete discussion on being obese and overweight. It also explains the symptoms of obesity in adults and children, as well as the possible problems from the disease. Remember that BMI is not accurate always for the measurement of body fat content.

For instance, some athletes may have an increase than normal-weight easily because of the high muscle weights more than fat and increasing levels of muscle mass. This might be qualify technically for the obesity category therefore, they consist of a little body fat. Here are some different symptoms conditions in the following: