Seizure is considered hallmark of epilepsy, however, not all seizures mean the patient is epileptic. Epileptic seizures are unprovoked, which means that there is no underlying acute injury to the brain tissue, which is causing the seizures to occur. This condition differentiates the seizures caused by head injury or alcohol overdose from the epileptic seizures.
Several underlying mechanisms can give rise to epileptic seizures. All proposed mechanisms serve to explain the hyper-excitable state of neurons. The neuronal circuit regulation may be offset by increased action of the excitatory chemicals, and diminished action of the inhibitory chemicals. Some genetic mutations can cause abnormality in the channels, maintaining the ion balance across the membranes. The signal transmission through such malfunctioning neural membranes can result in seizure attack which interfere with the normal brain functioning.